Basic scientists and clinicians must have up-to-date methodologies to study sex differences.
Animals are used in research when it is necessary to study the whole, living body, which is more complex than individual parts. Read more
Cultured cells are used by preclinical researchers to identify biological mechanisms, pathways and processes that form the basis for the development of new interventions that are evenually used in humans. Read more
While the passage of the NIH Revitalization Act in 1993 mandated the inclusion of females in research studies, it is essential to study sex as a variable moving forward in clinical trials. Read more