Sex-Specific Treatment Suggested for Women with Gout

Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis which affects over 8.3 million adults in the United States [1]. It stems from the build-up of uric acid, a common chemical found in the body.  When uric acid is over-produced, it can form tiny crystals which are deposited into joints of the toes, feet, wrists and fingers, causing arthritic pain. A recent study published in the journal BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders found that women may experience gout differently than men [2]. The study analyzed health information from 1237 patients who have been diagnosed by rheumatologists with gout. Women with gout were more likely to have their work and daily activities impaired by the disease as compared to men. In addition, women with gout typically had other health issues such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and kidney disease. This may indicate that women with gout may benefit from customized treatment plans due to their co-existing health conditions.

If you are interested in learning more about gout please consider checking out the following resources: 

References: 

  1. Centers for Disease Control 
  2. Harrold et al., BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2017;18(1):108. 

Physical Activity Promotes Healthy Gut Bacteria in Women

The human gut microbiome contains over 1,000 different species of bacteria which may play a significant role in our overall health [1]. Over the last decade, the study of the human microbiome has expanded tremendously through the support of the Human Microbiome Project [2]. We now know that imbalances in our gut microbes can play a role in the development and progression of various diseases and disorders [reviewed in 3-4]. A recent study published in PLoS One found that physical activity may impact the amount of “healthy” gut bacteria in women [5]. The study examined the activity patterns of 40 women over the course of one week and categorized them into a sedentary or active group based on the amount of physical activity they participated in. Stool samples from all of the participants were evaluated to determine the type and abundance of bacteria present. The authors found that while both groups of women had similar types of gut microbes, active women had higher amounts of health-promoting bacteria such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia hominis, and Akkermansia muciniphila. These results suggest that physical activity can directly impact our microbiome in a beneficial way. Thus, providing yet another example of why physical activity is important in maintaining a healthy lifestyle! 

References:

  1. Arumugam et al., Nature. 2011;473(7346):147-180.  
  2. Human Microbiome Project
  3. Lynch et al., N Engl J Med. 2016;375(24):2369-2379.
  4. Shreiner et al., Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2015; 31(1): 69–75.
  5. Bressa et al., PLoS One. 2017 Feb 10;12(2):e0171352.

 

 

American Heart Association Journal Dedicates Issues to Women’s Health and Sex-Based Research

The American Heart Association (AHA) journal, Circulation, has dedicated its February issue to women’s health and sex-based research in the cardiovascular field [1]. The issue follows suit in the AHA campaign “Go Red for Women,” which raises awareness of women’s cardiovascular health and promotes sex-specific treatment guidelines, risk assessment, and sex-based research. Research featured in the issue focuses not only on sex-based cardiovascular health but also broader topics such as gender-bias in faculty rank among academic cardiologists and sex-bias in preclinical cardiovascular research.  

To access the February issue of Circulation, click here.

February is American Heart Month, to learn more about heart health check out the following resources:

Reference:
1. Circulation. 2017;135(6). 

WHRI Celebrates Sex-Inclusive Science on Policy Anniversary

On January 25th, 2017 the Women’s Health Research Institute, in collaboration with the Northwestern University Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute, hosted the Sex Inclusion in Biomedical Research Workshop and Symposium. The event celebrated the 1-year anniversary of the NIH policy which asks federally-funded investigators to consider sex as a biological variable. Numerous students, faculty, staff, alumni, and community members attended the day-long event which featured a panel discussion, keynote lectures, and invited talks by experts in sex-based research.

An excerpt from the opening lecture given by WHRI founder and director, Dr. Teresa Woodruff, can be found below.

Resources from the workshop, including lecture videos, will be accessible through the Sex Inclusion @ NU toolbox (sexinclusion.northwestern.edu). 

Podcast Highlights Guide to Sex as a Biological Variable

This week, the podcast associated with the journal Neuropsychopharmacology, “Brainpod,” released an episode entitled, “Sex as a Biological Variable: Who, What, When, Why and How.” The podcast discusses the eponymous article penned by Drs. Tracy Bale and Neill Epperson from University of Pennsylvania [1]. The authors provide guidance on sex-based study design and rationale for incorporating sex as a biological variable within both biomedical and clinical research. They debunk common misconceptions surrounding the use of female rodents, provide context as to what would be considered an appropriate “single-sex” study, and briefly discuss the organizing effects of estrogen and testosterone in brain development.

 Click here to listen to the podcast.  

 Want to learn more about sex-inclusive science? Visit Sex Inclusion at NU!   

 References:
1. Bale and Epperson., Neuropsychopharmacology (2017); 42:386–396. 

Sex Impacts Success of Crohn's Disease Treatment

Inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis, cause chronic inflammation and irritation of the digestive tract. Affecting over 1 million Americans, these disorders can cause significant physical and emotional distress due to frequent abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding [1]. A recent study in the journal Inflammatory Bowel Disease found that women who suffer from Crohn’s disease may respond differently to treatment than men [2].

The study examined how both men and women with Crohn’s disease respond to treatment with adalimumab, a common biologic therapy used to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation [3]. The authors found that women who took adalimumab experienced more side effects than men, and were more likely to discontinue treatment as a result. Although this study was limited in scope with only 188 participants, it demonstrates a real issue in healthcare – men and women may respond differently to the same type of treatment. The authors suggest that healthcare professionals discuss realistic expectations for treatment with adalimumab, which includes full disclosure of potential side effects. Likewise, the results of this study may help guide the development of sex-specific therapies and personalized treatments for irritable bowel disease. 

 

References: 
1. Centers for Disease Control
2. Lie et al., Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2017 Jan;23(1):75-81.  
3. Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America  

 

Editorial Urges Sex-Reporting in Medical Journals

High impact medical journals have the ability to generate substantial changes in clinical research methods, analyses, and reporting through publication guidelines. This week, executive editor of The Lancet, Jocalyn Clark, co-authored an editorial urging for thorough reporting of sex-specific findings in medical journals [1]. The authors analyzed data from 60 clinical trials published in The Lancet and The New England Journal of Medicine, and found results which require thoughtful attention.  

While the overall number of female participants in clinical research has increased from 37% in 2009 to 41% in 2016, it still falls short of the ideal goal of 50%. Despite the fact that each study included male and female participants, 57% did not perform any sex-specific data analysis. The authors note that The Lancet encourages, but does not require, researchers to analyze data by sex. Therefore, they suggest if high-profile medical journals were to make sex-based analyses and reporting a requirement for publication, this would lead to improved health outcomes for all.

For further reading on this topic:

Sex based subgroup differences in randomized controlled trials: empirical evidence from Cochrane meta-analyses
Wallach et al., BMJ. 2016;355:i5826.

Implications for Journals of Sex-Specific Reporting Policies of Journals
Sex-Specific Reporting of Scientific Research: A Workshop Summary
Institute of Medicine, 2012.

References:
1. Avery and Clark, Lancet. 2016; 388(10062): 2839-2840.