WHSP Students Visit FSM to Learn About Medical Careers

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On Tuesday, November 20th, 8 members from the Women's Health Science Program Class of 2018 came to Northwestern University for an afternoon visit focused on careers in medicine.

The students started their visit with a trip to the Shirley Ryan Ability Lab  (SRAL) to learn about Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation from Dr. Leslie Rydberg, Assistant Professor of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. They had the opportunity to tour some of the facilities at SRAL to get a better understanding of the integrated approach to research, medicine, and rehabilitation.

WHSP Students Meet Dr. Leslie Rydberg at the Shirley Ryan Ability Lab  

Next, students attended a special monthly Women’s Health Research forum featuring Dr. Suzanne Harrison, Professor of Family Medicine & Rural Health and Director of Clinical Programs from Florida State University College of Medicine. Dr. Harrison, who is also the immediate-past president of the American Medical Women’s Association met with WHSP students over lunch, alongside several Northwestern University medical students. Students had the opportunity to speak with Dr. Harrison about her work in Family Medicine as well as advocacy activities related to the promotion of women in medicine. 

WHSP and Feinberg School of Medicine Students meet with Dr. Suzanne Harrison

Later in the afternoon, students met with Dr. Shikha Jain, Northwestern Health System Clinician of Medicine (Hematology and Oncology), to discuss the subspecialty of hematology-oncology and the use of social media in medicine. Dr. Jain advised students on the appropriate use of social media as they consider their future careers, and discussed how it could be beneficial for networking.

WHSP Students Learn About Hematology-Oncology From Dr. Shikha Jain 

Lastly, Dr. Jennifer Pinkus, Assistant Professor of Pathology, organized a career panel for WHSP students showcasing a variety of careers in pathology such as pathologists,  pathology assistants, histo- and cytotechnologists, and cytogeneticists.

WHSP Students With Dr. Jenny Pinkus and Staff from the Department of Pathology 

The WHSP students look forward to their next visit to campus this spring, which will focus on the basic sciences and include a tour of the Evanston campus.

The Women’s Health Research Institute is grateful to all the faculty and staff who participated in this event and who demonstrate a commitment to the next generation of leaders in science and medicine.

 

To learn more about how you can support the Women’s Health Science Program, please contact Dr. Niki Woitowich at nicole.woitowich@northwestern.edu.

Young Women Exercising Less After High School Than Men

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A recent article published in JAMA Pediatrics highlights a study conducted with the intention of identifying physical activity levels of adolescents and young adults in the United States, and more specifically, breaking down and examining the activity levels by sex, income, and race/ethnicity. The findings indicate that overall, females participated in less physical activity than males, and that minority racial/ethnic groups and individuals with lower incomes were typically less physically active. [1]

The study itself was conducted from 2007 to 2016 with self-reported physical activity information collected from 9,472 adolescent and young adult participants: 4,771 males and 4,701 females. The average age of the participants was 20.6. [1] The study found that among teenagers between ages 12 and 17, around 88% of the males reported being physically active, compared to about 78% of females. However, between the ages 18 and 24, these rates drop to 73% for males, and only about 62% for females, indicating that after high school, fewer women participate in physical activity. This disparity is even greater among minority groups. For example, among female participants aged 18 to 24, around 71% of white women reported participating in any moderate or vigorous physical activity, compared to only 45% of black women. When looking at the data with regards to income, about 80% of women in the highest income bracket remained physically active after age 17, compared to between 45% to 55% of women below the poverty line. [2]

Researchers have considered reasons for these disparities and how to address them. An adolescent medicine specialist from Harvard University, Dr. Holly Gooding, was not involved in the study, but believes that socialization norms may contribute, as teen girl socialization is not often centered around physical activities, unlike with boys. She also points out that schools and communities that serve minority populations often have fewer resources such as athletic fields or safe spaces to participate in physical activity outside of school. Dr. Charlene Wong, one of the authors of the study also cited the increased use of mobile devices as contributing to decreased physical activity for all groups. Dr. Wong suggests that this study has demonstrated where to aim for improvements in physical activity in young people, and that it may be helpful to use programs in schools to develop healthy physical activity habits, especially among women, that can be carried into adulthood. [2]

References

[1] Armstrong, S., Wong, C.A., Perrin, E., Page, S., Sibley, L., & Skinner, A. Association of Physical Activity With Income, Race/Ethnicity, and Sex Among Adolescents and Young Adults in the United States: Findings From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2016. JAMA Pediatrics, 2018;172(8):732-740. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.1273.

[2] Watson, S.K. After High School, Young Women's Exercise Rates Plunge. NPR. 11 June 2018.

Mediterranean Diet May Reduce Risk of Stroke More Among Women Than Men

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The Mediterranean Diet is known to have many health benefits, but a recent study published in the journal Stroke examined the impact that the diet has specifically on the risk of stroke, and whether the diet impacts the risk of stroke in men and women differently. The Mediterranean Diet emphasizes eating fish, fruits, vegetables, and nuts, and using olive oil as the main source of fat. It also includes moderate alcohol consumption, but only small quantities of meat and dairy. [1]

The study was conducted in the United Kingdom, among a population-based group of 23,232 individuals aged 40 to 77, of whom 54.5% were women. The individuals in the study were followed for 17 years, with stroke incidence calculated and stratified by sex and risk of cardiovascular disease. To determine adherence to the Mediterranean diet, participants completed a 7-day diet diary. [1]

The findings indicate that overall, the risk of stroke among all the study participants decreased significantly with greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Interestingly, when stratified by sex, the risk of stroke among women was reduced even more, and although there was a decrease of risk of stroke among the male population, it was not significant. [1] The overall risk of stroke incidence decreased 17% among both men and women, decreased 22% among just women, and decreased only 6% among men. [2] Researchers are unsure what causes the difference in risk reduction among men and women on the Mediterranean diet, and suggest further studies to understand more clearly associations between diet and risk of stroke.

References

[1] Paterson, K.E., Myint, P.K., Jennings, A., Bain, L.K.M, Lentjes, M.A.H., Khaw, K.T., & Welch, A.A. Mediterranean Diet Reduces Risk of Incident Stroke in a Population With Varying Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profiles. Stroke. 2018 Oct; 49(10): 2415–2420.

[2] Reinberg, S. Mediterranean Diet May Cut Stroke Risk for Women, But Not Men. U.S. News & World Report. 20 Sept. 2018. 

WHRI Welcomes Interns and Contributors for 2018-2019

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The Women’s Health Research Institute at Northwestern University is committed to the promotion, advancement, and retention of women in science and medicine. To this end, we have a variety of programs that support women who are interested in or currently pursuing careers in these fields.

We are thrilled to introduce our team of interns and contributors for the 2018-2019 academic year. Please join us welcoming, Mary Cormier, Janki Patel, and Sarah Henning:

Mary Cormier is a junior at Northwestern University studying Neuroscience and Anthropology. Mary is interested in studying the social determinants of health and disease. She is passionate about health equity, and is involved a student organization which provides supplementary, peer-modeled health curriculum to high school partners throughout Chicago. She will be working with Dr. Niki Woitowich to develop strategies to provide access to clinical research opportunities to under-resourced communities via the Illinois Women’s Health Registry.

Janki Patel is a Master's student in the Health Communications program at Northwestern University. She has plans to begin medical school next year at Midwestern University, ultimately aspiring to focus on women's health. She is interested in community education, specifically related to women's health and the of social determinants of health on individuals and communities. She will be working with Institute leadership to create effective, and educational communication strategies related to women’s health research. 

Sarah Henning, MPH, returns as a contributing author for the WHRI blog. Sarah first began writing for the Institute blog as an undergraduate student at Northwestern University and then took a hiatus while she pursued a degree in Master of Public Health at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Sarah is passionate about promoting women’s health, particularly, reproductive and mental health, and raising awareness about health disparities. In her spare time, she volunteers at a number of organizations which focus on these issues.

Soccer Heading May Impact Women More than Men

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A recent study in the journal Radiology reports that heading a soccer ball, which is a common action for both male and female athletes in the sport of soccer, may pose more of a health risk for women than for men. The study took place between 2013 and 2016, and was a subset of a larger study of both male and female amateur soccer players. The study included 94 athletes - 49 men and 49 women - matched for age and history of heading a soccer ball. Among the females in the study, there was a median of 469 soccer ball headings a year, compared to 487 among the male study participants. The investigators used diffusion-tensor imaging, which is a type of MRI-technology, to examine differences in the structure of white matter in the brain of the participants. [1] In an interview about the study, the lead author, Michael Lipton, describes white matter as a connector of neurons within the brain, and that alterations or abnormalities in white matter may be associated with decreased cognitive function, such as issues with memory. [2]

The results of the study indicate that the female participants who were exposed to the same amount of soccer ball heading as male participants experienced more alteration to the microstructure of their brain’s white matter than the males. This suggests that women may respond differently, or have greater sensitivity, to low-level, repetitive, trauma to the brain than men. [1]

This study highlights the importance of sex-inclusive research, and examining sex differences in a variety of disciplines. While Lipton makes it clear that this doesn’t mean women or men should stop playing soccer, it points to a need for additional research, which may help improve athlete health and the safety of sports.

References

[1] Rubin T.G., Catenaccio E., Fleysher R., Hunter L.E., Lubin N., Stewart W.F., Kim M., Lipton R.B., & Lipton M.L. MRI-defined White Matter Microstructural Alteration Associated with Soccer Heading Is More Extensive in Women than Men. Radiology. 2018 Jul 31:180217.

[2] Kiley Watson, S. Heading May Be Riskier For Female Soccer Players Than Males. NPR. 31 July, 2018.