The Women's Health Research Institute is now accepting applications for the 2019 Shaw Family Pioneer Awards. The Shaw Family Pioneer awards provide $12,000 in direct support for sex-inclusive research which focuses on the sex-based determinants of health and disease. To learn more about the Shaw Family Pioneer Awards, please click here.
The Surgery Journals Editors Group announced that they will require sex-based analyses and reporting for all human, animal, tissue, and cell-based research published in their journals. Similar to the NIH sex-inclusion policy, the journals will also require justification for the use of a single sex. This requirement is a likely follow-up to research which identified a significant sex-bias in surgical research (See: Mansukhani et al., 2016 and Xiao et al., 2018 for further reading).
The joint statement was published within multiple journals this summer, and was most recently featured in JAMA Surgery in August. The WHRI applauds the 74 journal consortium for their efforts to advance sex-inclusive research and encourages other publishers to follow suit.
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women in the United States. Yet, we know there are sex- and gender-specific influences that effect cardiovascular health outcomes. For example, women experiencing a heart attack are likely to present with varying symptoms and receive a delay in treatment compared to men, reducing their chances of survival.
A recent study published in the Proceedings of the National Academies of Science found that the treating physician's gender also effects patient survival . The authors examined over 500,000 emergency room medical records between 1991 and 2010 and explored how patient and physician gender relate to health outcomes, such as mortality rates. They found that female patients treated by male physicians were less likely to survive, whereas patients of either gender had similar survival rates if the treating physician was female.
"Over 15 years ago, two studies published in the New England Journal of Medicine identified that women with chest pain were not getting the same treatment as men," says Dr. Marla Mendelson, Associate Professor of Medicine (Cardiology) and Medical Director for the Program for Women's Cardiovascular Health at Northwestern University.
"Here we are with a current study of ER physicians demonstrating a disparity in outcomes: There was higher mortality among female patients treated by male physicians, but similar outcomes for men and women when the physician is female. Despite public awareness and education of physicians, there seems to be an inherent bias in the perception of clinical disease in women," she says.
Mendelson suggests that continuing education for physicians is crucial, "[It] can be addressed beginning at the medical school level, during residency training, and throughout the continuing education of practicing physicians, of all disciplines, involved in the care of women.
The Women's Health Research Institute promotes awareness of sex- and gender-related health issues and provides education for researchers, physicians, and community members. To learn more about sex and gender disparities in cardiovascular disease, consider reviewing the following resources:
- Sex as a Biological Variable in Emergency Medicine Research and Clinical Practice: A Brief Narrative Review
- Reporting of sex as a variable in cardiovascular studies using cultured cells
- Sex in basic research: concepts in the cardiovascular field
For Community Members:
- American Heart Association – Go Red for Women
- Northwestern Medicine – Program for Women's Cardiovascular Care
1. Greenwood et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Aug 6. pii: 201800097. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1800097115. [Epub ahead of print]
Northwestern University is establishing a chapter of the American Association for University Women (AAUW) this fall. The AAUW empowers women through research, campus initiatives, STEM education, public policy, case support, educational funding, global connections, leadership development, and salary negotiation.
Launching an NU chapter within the AAUW will allow all students, faculty, and staff to share membership benefits including:
· Free AAUW membership for all undergraduates and degree-seeking graduates at Northwestern
· Priority for educational project grants and leadership development opportunities for students
· Advocacy for federal public policy that supports education
· Access to AAUW internships in Washington, D.C. for students
· Opportunities for faculty to participate in national selection panels for prestigious awards
· Access for staff and faculty to use AAUW programs to supplement teaching and programming
The chapter is currently recruiting Northwestern students, staff, and faculty to join its leadership board which will assist in the continued launch, development, and implementation of chapter initiatives. If you would like to serve on the leadership board, you will be asked to complete and submit a brief proposal of interest outlining your goals, ideas, and availability to commit to chapter initiatives.
Please email firstname.lastname@example.org to learn more about current board positions available. All Northwestern students, staff, and faculty are welcome to apply.
Are you looking for summer reading suggestions? We’ve compiled a list of some of the most recent reviews related to sex- and gender-inclusive research and organized them by topic. Check out the list below!
Sex bias in basic and preclinical age-related hearing loss research.
Villavisanis et al., Biol Sex Differ. 2018 Jun 13;9(1):23. doi: 10.1186/s13293-018-0185-7.
Female sex as a biological variable: A review on younger patients with acute coronary syndrome.
Bugiardini et al., Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2018 Jun 12. pii: S1050-1738(18)30091-4. doi: 10.1016/j.tcm.2018.06.002. [Epub ahead of print]
Sex differences in cardiac electrophysiology
Ravens, U. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2018 Jul 12. doi: 10.1139/cjpp-2018-0179. [Epub ahead of print]
Sex Differences in Cardiovascular Pathophysiology: Why Women Are Overrepresented in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction.
Beale et al., Circulation. 2018 Jul 10;138(2):198-205. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.034271.
Endocrinology & Metabolism
Identifying the Critical Gaps in Research on Sex Differences in Metabolism Across the Life Span.
Reusch et al., Endocrinology. 2018 Jan 1;159(1):9-19. doi: 10.1210/en.2017-03019. Review.
Sex differences underlying pancreatic islet biology and its dysfunction.
Gannon et al., Mol Metab. 2018 Sep;15:82-91. doi: 10.1016/j.molmet.2018.05.017. Epub 2018 May 30.
Neurology & Neuroscience
Understanding the impact of sex and gender in Alzheimer's disease: A call to action
Nebel et al., Alzheimers Dement. 2018 Jun 12. pii: S1552-5260(18)30130-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2018.04.008. [Epub ahead of print]
Sex differences in Alzheimer disease - the gateway to precision medicine.
Girourard et al., Nat Rev Neurol. 2018 Jul 9. doi: 10.1038/s41582-018-0032-9. [Epub ahead of print] Review.
Sex differences in the evaluation and treatment of acute ischaemic stroke.
Bushnell, et al., Lancet Neurol. 2018 Jul;17(7):641-650. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(18)30201-1. Review.
Sex Differences in the Neuroimmune System.
Osborne et al., Curr Opin Behav Sci. 2018 Oct;23:118-123. doi: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.05.007
The impact of sex as a biological variable in the search for novel antidepressants.
Williams & Trainor. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2018 May 31. pii: S0091-3022(18)30044-X. doi: 10.1016/j.yfrne.2018.05.003. [Epub ahead of print]
Sex Differences in Psychiatric Disease: A Focus on the Glutamate System.
Wickens et al, Front Mol Neurosci. 2018 Jun 5;11:197. doi: 10.3389/fnmol.2018.00197. eCollection 2018. Review.
The latest issue of Breathe, the journal of the European Respiratory Society, focuses on sex- and gender-related issues in respiratory health. Topics covered include the impact of sex on respiratory function, sex-differences in bronchiectasis, the influence of sex-on respiratory outcomes in preterm neonates and in the development of childhood respiratory conditions.
The journal’s Chief Editor, Dr. Renata Riha, notes that, “Perhaps psychiatrists and psychologists have recognized that there are gender differences in behavior and response to illness, which evolve over time from childhood into adulthood, but there is far less research in this area in internal medicine, let alone surgery!”
This special feature is encouraging, given the fact that sex differences exists in the prevalence of several respiratory conditions including asthma, COPD, and pulmonary hypertension. To access the issue, please click here: Breathe (June 2018).
Did you know that on average, people spend approximately 1 to 2 hours outdoors every day during in the summer months? Some sun exposure is actually good for us, as it helps our body produce vitamin D. However, when we spend too much time in the sun without adequate protection we run the risk of sunburn which can lead to skin damage and ultimately an increased risk of skin cancer.
How is sunlight harmful?
The sun emits ultraviolet (UV) radiation which can cause both short-term and long-term changes to our skin. Short-term changes occur after a sunburn, as UV damage triggers an inflammatory response in the skin. At the molecular level, UV radiation has the ability to damage our DNA. Repeated exposure to the sun can cause long-term changes to our skin cells that make them more susceptible to cancer as well as cause premature aging of the skin.
How can we protect ourselves?
The best way to prevent sunburn or other harmful effects of the sun, is to stay in the shade, wear protective clothing, and apply a sunscreen with a Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of at least 15.
Don’t forget to protect your eyes as well!
Sun exposure has also been linked to the development of cataracts. The CDC recommends wearing sunglasses which contain both UVA and UVB protection, which cover the two main types of UV radiation.
If you are interested in learning more about sun exposure and how to protect yourself this summer, consider checking out the following resources: